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HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language)

What is an HTML File?
HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Languages ,which is an application of standard generalized Markup Language(SGML).It is a simple language used to define and describe the layout of a Web page.HTML also supports Multimedia and documents links.

HTML consist of special codes which when embedded in text,adds formatting. The special characters,which separate HTML from ordinary text, are the left and right brackets.(<>).These brackets contain instructions known as TAGS that are not case sensitive.The Case study substantially helps in understanding the need for learning HTML and the usage of HTML and the usage of HTML in designing the web pages.

HTM or HTML Extension?

When you save an HTML file, you can use either the .htm or the .html extension. We have used .htm in our examples. It might be a bad habit inherited from the past when some of the commonly used software only allowed three letter extensions.Use notepad to save html file.


HTML tags are used to mark-up HTML elements .

HTML tags are surrounded by the two characters < and > .

The surrounding characters are called angle brackets .

HTML tags normally come in pairs like <b> and </b>.

The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag.

The text between the start and end tags is the element content.

HTML tags are not case sensitive, <b> means the same as <B>.

Basic Tags

<html> </html> Defines an html document.

<body> </body> Defines the body element

<h1> to <h6> Defines header 1 to header 6

<p> </p> Defines a paragraph

<br> Inserts a single line break

<hr> Defines a horizontal rule

<!--...--> Defines a comment

Char Format

<b> </b> Defines bold text.

<font> </font> Defines text font, size, and color.

<i> </i> Defines italic text.

<em> </em> Defines emphasized text.

<big> </big> Defines big text.

<strong> </strong> Defines strong text.

<small> Defines small text.

<sup> </sup> Defines superscripted text.

<sub> </sub> Defines subscripted text.

<u> </u> Defines underlined text.


<pre> </pre> Defines preformatted text.

<code> </code> Defines computer code text.

<tt> </tt> Defines teletype text.

<kbd> </kbd> Defines keyboard text.

<var> </var> Defines a variable.

<samp> </samp> Defines sample computer code.


<acronym> Defines an acronym.

<abbr> Defines an abbreviation.

<address> Defines an address element.

<blockquote> Defines a long quotation.

<center> Deprecated. Defines centered text.

<q> Defines a short quotation.

<cite> Defines a citation.

<ins> Defines inserted text.

<del> Defines deleted text.

<s> Defines strikethrough text.

<strike> Defines strikethrough text.


<a> Defines an anchor.

<link> Defines a resource reference .


<frame> Defines a sub window (a frame).

<frameset> Defines a set of frames.

<noframes> Defines a noframe section.

<iframe> Defines an inline sub window (frame).


<form> Defines a form.

<input> Defines an input field.

<textarea> Defines a text area.

<button> Defines a push button.

<select> Defines a selectable list.

<option> Defines an item in a list box.

<label> Defines a label for a form control.

<fieldset> Defines a fieldset.

<legend> Defines a title in a fieldset.


<ul> Defines an unordered list.

<ol> Defines an ordered list.

<li> Defines a list item.

<dir> Defines a directory list.

<dl> Defines a definition list.

<dt> Defines a definition term.

<dd> Defines a definition description.

<menu> Deprecated. Defines a menu list.


<img> Defines an image.

<map> Defines an image map.

<area> Defines an area inside an image map.


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