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dobe Photoshop is package which has revolutionized through world of computer graphics. This package is very useful for image editing, composing, finishing & it is used by photographers, designers, illustrators, fine artists and multimedia producers.Photoshop allows you to save your images in large variety of format and print your images to any output devices. Different menu available in this package help you to improve your creativity- The file menu contains the several option-; which allow you to save and print your images. This menu contains the options which can be used to change the setting of this packages according to your convenience.

Adobe Photoshop Keyboard Shortcutkeys

The tools in a toolbox let you to select, paint, edit, and view images- Other controls choose foreground and background colors, create quick masks, and change the screen display mode. Most of the tools have associated Brushes and Palette Options, which let you to define the tools' painting and editing effects.

MOVE TOOL:This tool allows you to move a selected area or a layer to a new location.

MARQUEE TOOL: This tool are selection tools. We can use this tools for making rectangular or elliptical selections- We can also select a single row or a single column from the image.

LASSO TOOL: This tool are also the selection tool, but here you can do the freehand selection

MAGIC WAND TOOL: This tool lets you select a consistently colored area (e.g., a red flower)without having to trace its outline. You specify the color range, or tolerance, for the magic wand tool’s selection.

AIR BRUSH : This tool applies gradual tones (including sprays of color) to an image, simulating traditional air brush techniques. The pressure setting for the air brush tool controls how quickly the spray of paint is applied. If you hold down the mouse button without dragging , you can build up color.

PAINT BRUSH: Paint Brush tool allows you to create a soft stroke of color in your image.

RUBBER STAMP /PATTERN STAMP: Rubber stamp tool takes a sample of the image, which you can then apply over another image or part of the same image. Each stroke of the tool paints on more of the sampled image. Cross hairs mark the original sampling point.

PATTERN STAMP: This tool lets you select part of an image and paint with the selection as a pattern.

HISTORY BRUSH: History Brush tool works similarly to the rubber stamp tool, but on any state or snapshot of the image, not just the current one but channels and monitor the effects of editing.

ERASER TOOL: Erase tool changes pixels in the image as you drag through them. If you are working in the background, or any other layer with preserve Transparency on, the pixels change to the background color.

PENCIL/LINE TOOL: Pencil tool creates hard-edged freehand lines and is most useful for bitmap images.

Line tool draws straight lines on an image.

Blur tool softens hard edges or areas in an image to reduce detail.

Sharpen tool focuses soft edges to increase clarity or focus.

Smudge tool simulates the actions of dragging a finger through wet paint. The tool picks up color where the stroke begins and pushes it in the direction you drag.


Dodge/Burn:This tool are used to lighten or darken areas of an image.

Sponge: This tool allows you to subtly change the color saturation of an area.

MEASURE TOOL:This tool allows you to calculate the distance between any two points in the image area.

GRADIENT TOOl:This toolcreate a gradual blend between multiple colors. You can choose from existing gradient fills or create your own. You draw a gradient by dragging in the image from a starting point (where the mouse is pressed) to an ending point (where the mouse is released). The starting and ending points affect, the gradient appearance according to the gradient tool used.

PAINT BUCKET TOOL:This tool fills adjacent pixels that are similar in color value to the pixels you click. The paint bucket tool cannot be used with images in Bitmap mode.

EYEDROPPER TOOL/ COLOR SAMPLER TOOL: Ever Dropper tool can be used'to view the color of a single area.
Color Sampler tool can be used to view upto four color sampler to display color information for upto four locations in the image.

HAND TOOL:This tool allows you to see the another part of an image by just dragging the mouse,

ZOOM TOOL: This tool for magnify or reduce your view.

QUICK MASK: This tool mode lets you edit any selection as a mask without using the Channel--. palette and while viewing your image- The advantage of editing your selection as a mask is that you can use almost any Photoshop tool or filter to modify the mask.


Photoshop file menu is dedicated to tile global control of Photoshop files & files transfer,i.e. saving a file to different format as well as changing page setup and print commands.

NEW: This commands lets you to create blank unfilled photoshop image. It opens dialogue box where you can give the name for image and set the width, height, resolution and color mode for the new image. The different color modes are Bitmap, RGB, CMYK and ' LAB color. The width and height could be specified in pixels, inches, centimeters, points, picas or columns.

OPEN & OPEN AS: Both the commands are similar, but the main difference are follows :

Open : command opens files saved in format supported by Photoshop

Open As : command open the file that has a missing or incorrect file extension.

SAVE AS :The Save As command lets you save an alternate version of the file in a different Hie format.

REVERT :The Revert command reverses all changes made to the image since it was last saved.

IMPORT:TWAIN is a cross-platform interface for acquiring images captured by certain scanners, digital cameras, and frame grabbers. The manufacturer of the TWAIN device must provide a Source Manager and TWAIN Data source for your device to work with Photoshop..

PAGESETUP & PRINT:The Page Setup command display general printing option. The main area at the dialog box contains the standard printing option for paper type, printers, effect, reduction and enlargement.

Print command is used to print your images.

PREFERENCES:This command is used to change the setting of this package according to your convenience. e.g. you can change the Guides & Grids size and color.

The Edit menu is used windows based common commands like copy cut, past etc.

Undo:- The previous given command can be cancelled by Undo comiiuiiic!. In Pholoshup Undo command cancels only one previously applied command,
Cut :- If you want to move text or object from one place to another, we can use cut option from Edit Menu.
Copy :- If we want to make a duplicate of text or object then wo can u,so copy option •from Edit Menu.
Paste :- Paste works in conjunction with cut or copy. Paste places the data we have cut or copied in the current location where the cursor,
Be Smart and use following Shortcuts Cut - (Ctrl+X) Copy - (Ctrl+C) Paste- (Ctrl+V).

CLEAR : This command is used to clear the selected area in the image and replace it with the current background.

a) SCALE : Scale command allows you to change the size ofyour current selection.
b) ROTATE: Rotate command allows you rotate the selection or the current layer.
c) SKEW: Skew command is combination of rotation and scale,
d) DISTORT: Distort command is allowed to make give the pinch or distorted effect to your image.
e) PERSPECTIVE: By this option, you can move the control points of the active selection or the current layer to get a perspective effect.

NUMERIC : This option allows you to apply all the transformation by giving the specific numeric value for the transformation. You can use tins command if you want to apply transformation based on accurate measurement.

ROTATE 180,90 C\Y 90 CCW : These commands are Qsed for rotation of the active selection by giving the degrees of rotation.

DEFINE PATTERN:To define Pattern, you have to select the area which you want to give as a tiling pattern with the rectangular marquee tool.

IMAGE:Different option available under this menu is very powerful as here you can apply vour own color theory and make color correction.

MODE:The transition between converting an image from one mode to another permanently changes color values in the image. For example, when you convert an RGB image to CMYK mode, RGB color values outside the CMYK gamut are adjusted to fall within the CMYK gamut. Normally we work in RGB mode which gives you the full capabilities of' photoshop.

Adjust:The command under this option is used for replacing the particular color , making color correction and special effects.

The Auto Levels command and Auto buttons in the Levels and Curves dialog boxes perform automatically the equivalent of the Levels slider adjustment. They define the lightest and darkest pixels in each channel as white and black and then redistribute the intermediate pixel values proportionately.

The Curves dialog box provides the most control of all the image-editing commands because it allows you to adjust any value in any channel independently. The Curves command provides a visual graph to precisely adjust the, RGB values in your image.

c) Color BALANCE
The color Balance command lets you change the mixture of colors in a color image. Like the Brightness/Contrast command, this tool provide? generalized color correction. For precise control over individual color components, use Levels, Curves, or one of the specialized color correction tools: Hue/Saturation, Replace Color, or Selective Color.

This command is used to control overall brightness and contrast values of entire image or selected area. This option can be used for simple iidjustment, but if it is over used then it could result in data loss.

The selective color command allows you to modify the specific color by selecting it.

Invert:The Invert command .inverts an image. You might use this command to make a positive black-and-white image negative or to make a positive from S scanned black-and-white negative.

g) EQUALISE:The Equalize command redistributes the brightness values of the pixels in an image so fJiat they more evenly represent the entire range of brightness levels. When you choose this command, Photoshop finds the brightest and darkest values in the image so that the darkest value represents black (or as close to it as possible) and the brightest value represents white. Photoshop then attempts to equalize the brightness that is, to distribute the intermediate pixel values evenly throughout the grayscale.

h) VARIATIONS:This command allows you to change or adjust the color balance, contrast and Saturation of an image or selected area by clicking on the small box which have color name and the image or selected area which is modified. The current pick box shows you the changes made by you.

DUPLICATE:You can copy an entire image (including all layers, layer masks, and channels) into available memory without saving to disk by using the Duplicate command or by dragging and dropping. If Merged Layer Only option is on, all 1 he layers will he emerged in to one layer in the resulting file.

IMAGE SIZE:This command is used to resize an image while controlling its resolution or to change an images resolution while maintaining its aize,

CANVAS SIZE:The Canvas Size command lets you add or remove work space around an existing image. You can crop an image by decreasing the canvas area. Added canvas appears in the same color or transparency as the background,

CROP:Photoshop provides two ways to crop an image:
The Image > Crop command discards the area outside of' a rectangular selection and keeps the same resolution as the original.
The crop tool() lets you crop an image by dragging over the area that you want to keep. The advantage of using the crop tool is that you can rotate and resample the area as you crop.

ROTATE CANVAS:The Rotate Canvas commands let you rotate or flip the entire image. It does not work on individual layers or parts of layers, paths, or selection borders.

LAYER:This menu allows you to work and give effects separately on each layers- Making use of layers you can create effects like text effects, placing texts, creating shadow effects- A new feature in Photoshop 5 called Adjustment layer is very useful for those dealing:with colors. [For more information regarding colors see pg. no 21 under topic pixelateJ

NEW a) NEW LAYER.You can use this command for creating new layer in your linage. This command allows you to give a name to each and every iaycr you create. You also have option to change the capacity of new layer and even you can specify the mode you want.

b) ADJUSTMENT LAYER:The Adjustment layer allows you to insert an adjustment layer in your image. The only difference in this option is that here you can select the type of level you want for your adjustment layer. Remaining options are the same like New option
New Adjustment Lane.

You can use this option by making the selection on your image. This option, it will create the new layer of the selected area by keupmg the current layer intact.

This option is used to cut the selected area from you current layer and make a new layer of that selected area by cutting the selected area from your current layer.

You can copy an entire image (including all layers, layer masks, and channels) into available memory without saving to disk by using the Duplicate command or by dragging and dropping.

By using this option, you can delete the current layer. The important tiling is that you can not delete the background layer.

This option is very useful option for giving the different effects like shadow, emboss etc.

This effect allows you to add a shadow that falls behind the contents on the layer.

The Inner Shadow effect allows you to add a shadow that falls just inside the edges of layer contents.

The Outer Glow and Inner Glow effects let you add glows that emanate from the outside or inside edges of the layer contents.

The Bevel and Emboss effect lets you add various combinations of highlight and shadows to a laver.

Determines the lighting angle at which the effect is applied Lo the layer. You can define a global angle that applies to all layer effects in the image; you can also assign a local angle that applies only to a specific layer effect. Using a global angle gives the appearance of a consistent, light source shining on the image.

If you wish to app]y the full range of Photoshop effects (such as filters) to a text layer. you have to convert the text layer to a regular layer by making use of the Render option. Horizontal or Vertical options allow you to change the orientation of the layers contents,

Making use of Add layer mask, you can hide and reveal parts of a layer as well as apply special effects such as filters in a controlled and precise manner,

When you select this command, a layer mask is added to the current layer, keeping the contents of layer intact.

This option works in the opposite way of the Reveal At] command. When you select this command, a layer mask is added to the current layer, hiding the contents of the current layer.

When you select this command, the current layer will get combined with the layer below it. Once you have merged layers, there is no way for you to split them again.

In a flattened image, all visible layers are merged into the background, greatly reducing file size. Flattening an image discards all hidden layers and fills (he remaining transparent areas with white. In most cases, you won't want to flatten a file until you have finished editing individual layers.

This menu is used to modify the selected areas as well as modify the pixel value's in flu' selected area. You are able to make complex selection making use of the SELECT menu with the commands available under this menu.

ALL :This command allows you to select the entire image.

DESELECT :The Deselect command removes the current selection from the image.

RESELECT :This command gets activated only when you don't have any current selection. It allows you to make a reselection of the last done selection.

INVERSE :The Inverse command lets you select all tlie non- selected pixel and deselected pixel.

FEATHER :This option blurs edges by building a transition boundary between the selection und ils surrounding pixels. This blurring can cause some loss of detail at the edge of tlie selection. You can define feathering for tlie marquee, lasso, polygon lusso, or m;i^ni.itic lasso tool as you use the tool, or you can add feathering to an existing selection. Feathering effects become apparent when you move, cut, or copy the selection.

Making use of modify border command you can modify the selected area so that instead of the whole object you can select only a border around it. You can enter a width for the border between 1 and 64 pixel in the Border dialog box.

The smooth command will be very helpful on a selection, which has been made with a Lasso tool. When you use this command your selection does not grow but the unselected pixels inside the selection border arc absorbed.

These commands are used to increase or decrease the area of selection. You can expand or shrink the selection by entering an integer value between 1 and 16.

TRANSFORM SELECTION :This command allows you to move, rotate, scale and distort your current selection . This command works similar like free transform command from Edit menu but here it applies to selection and not an object.

SAVE SELECTION: By using this command, you can save the complex selection. Here you can give the name to your selection.

Filter option is used to apply the special effects to your images. Photoshop gives you lots of filters and there are many filters available as plug-ins.
Blur: creates a diffuse, softened effect as you enter a value or drag the slider.

This filter can be used to produce a hazy blur effect.

Motion Blur: The Motion Blur filters allows you to produce a blur effect in a particular direction and of a specific intensity.

Radial Blur: Simulates the blur of a zooming or rotating camera to produce a soft blur.

BRUSH STROKES: Like Artistic filters, the brush stroke filters give a painterly or fine arts look using different brush and ink stroke effects. Some of the filters add grain, paint , noise , edge detail, or texture to an image for a pointillist effect.

Distort: The Distort filters geometrically distort an image , creating 3d or other reshaping effects. Note that these filters acan be very memory intensive.

Diffuse Glow : Diffuse Glow renders an image as though it were viewed through a soft diffusion filter.

Pinch: Squeezes a selection . Apositive value up to 100% shifts a selection towards its centrer a negative value to 100% shifts a selection outward.

GLASS: It makes an image appear as if it is being viewed through different types of glass. You can choose a glass effect or create your own glass surface as a Photoshop file, and apply it.

OCEAN RIPPLE: This filter adds randomly spaced ripples to the images surface , making the image look as if it were under water.

POLAR COORDINATES: this filter can be use to create a cylinder an amorphosis.

Ripple: It creates an undulating pattern in a selection, like ripples on the surface of a pond.

SHEAR: This command is used to distort the image according to the curve you specify.

Spherize: This filter is used for giving a three dimensional effect to an object and text.

TWIRL: this effect in distort menu rotates a selection more sharply in the center than at the edges.

WAVE: It works in a similar way to the Ripple filter, but with greater control.This Option include the number of wave generators, the wave –length(distance from one wave crest to the next), the height of the wave , and the wave type:Sine (rolling), Traingle or Square.

ZIGZAG:zigzag filter distorts a selection radially depending in the radius of the pixels in your selection.

ADD NOISE: The add noise filter can be used to reduce banding in feathers selections or graduated fills or to give a more realistic look to heavily retouches areas.

DESPECKEL:This filter detects the edges in an image (areas where significant color changes occur) and blurs all of the selection except those edges.

DUST & SCRATCHES: It reduces noise by changing dissimilar pixels

MEDIAN: median reduces noise in an image by blending the brightness of pixels within a selection . This Filter is useful for eliminating or reducing the effect of motion on an image.

COLOR HALFTONE: The filter divides the image in to rectangles and replaces each rectangle with a circle. The circle size is proportional to the brightness of the rectangle.

CRYSTALIZE: This filter clumps pixels in to a solid color in a polygon shape.

Facet: This filter clumps pixels in to blocks of colored pixels. You can use this Filter to make a scanned image look hand painted.

FRAGMENT : It creates four copies of the pixels in the selection, averages them and offsets the from each other.

MEZZOTINT: This filter converts an image to a random pattern of black and white areas or of fully saturates colors in a acolor image.

MOSIAC:Mosaic filters clumps pixels in to square blocks.

POINTILLIZE: this filter breaks up the color in an image in to randomly place dots at uses the backgroung color as a canvas area between the dots.

3D TRANSFORM: The sd transform box preview only the active layer. It maps images to cubes, sphere, and cylinders, which you can then rorate in three dimensions.

CLOUDS: Clouds effects generates a soft cloud pattern using random values that vary between the foreground and the background colors.

LENS FLARE: this filter simulates the reflection caused by shining a bright light in to the camera lens.

LIGHTING EFFECTS: This effects lets you produce lighting effects on RGB images by varying 17 light styles , 3light types, and 4 sets of light properties.

TEXTURE FILL: The texture fill filter allows to open the document which you want texture for your image. Remember that this command is applicable when the file is grayscale one.

Sharpen focus a selection and improve its clarity.

SHARPEN MORE: sharpen more filter applies a stronger sharpening effect that does the sharpen filter.

SHARPEN EDGES: The sharpen edges filter sharpens only edges while preserving the overall smoothness of the image.

UNSHARP MASK: This filter adjust the contrast of edge detail and produce a loght abd darker line on each side of the edge, to emphasize the edge and create the illusion of a sharper image.

Filters in the sketch submenu add texture to images , often for SDEFFECT.

DIFFUCE: this filter moves pixel in a slectiion to make the selection look less focuses.

EMBOSS: this filter makes a selection appear raised or stamped by converting fill color to gray and tracing the edges with the orginal fill color.

EXTRUDE: It gives a 3D texture to a slelction or layer.

GLOWING EDGES: It identifies the edges of color and adds a neon like glow to them.

SOLARIZE: this filter blends a negative and positive image similar to exposing a photographic print briefly to light during development.

TILES: This filter breaks up an image in to a series of tiles.

TRACE CONTOUR: This filter finds areas of major brightness transitions and draws thing around them.This filter is useful for creating a border around an image.

WIND: It creates tiny horizontal lines in the image to stimulate a wind effect Methods include Wind; Blast for a more dramatic wind effect and stagge offsets the wind lines in the image.

CRAQUELURE: it paints an image on a high relief plasture surface. This filter produces a nwetwork of cracks.

GRAIN: Grain filter adds texture to animage by stimulating different kinds of grains regular, soft, sprinkles , climped, contrastly, enlarged, stippled, horizontal, vertical and speckle.

MOSAIC TILES: This filter draws the image as if it had been made up of small chips or tiles and adds grout between the tiles.

PATCHWORK: this tool breaks up image in to squares filled with the predominant color in that area of the image.

TEXTURISER: It applies a texture you select or create to an image.

VIEW:You can magnify or reduce your view using various methods available under this menu. This menu also contain ruler, grid and guide command that allows you to precisely measure and locate objects.

NEW VIEW: This command allows you to see tour current image in eperate window.

PREVIEW: this command allows you to see how your image will look like in CMYK color mode, without actually changing the color mode of your image. Even you can see how your image will look in particular color channel.

GAMUT WARNING : this tool is used to see which color will be lost or modified when you change color mode from RGB TO CMYK.

Zoom In: Command allows you to zoom in on the image to see a magnified view to your .It is similar like magnifying glass.

Zoom out: Works opposite of Zoom in command.

FIT ON SCREEN: These options scale both the view and the window size to match the monitor size.

ACTUAL PIXELS: This command allows you to view your image at 100% magnification or its actual size.

PRINT SIZE: It allows you to display its approximate as specified in the print size option.

HIDE EDGES: It allows you to hide the display of edges of your selection.

HIDE PATH: This option is used to hide all the paths from your image.

SHOW RULERS: This command is used to hide all the paths from your image.

HIDE GUIDES: This command allows you to view or hide the guidelines within your image.

SNAP TO GUIDELINESS: When you keep this option on all, the tools will show the tendency to stick to you guidelines when you are working on image.

Lock Guides: This option allows you to lock the guidelines which you set on your image.

CLEAR GUIDELINES: This option allows you to lock the guidelines which you set on your image.

CLEAR GUIDELINES: This option will delete all the guidelines from your image.

SHOW HIDE ON: This command allows you to show / hide the grid lines from your image.

SNAP TO GRID: When you keep this option on all the tools will show the tendency to stick to you grid lines when you are working on the image.

This menu allows you to show /hide the palettes available in photoshop.

SHOW NAVIGATOR : The navigator palette lets you change the view of image without using Zoom tool.

SHOW SWATCHES : This palette allows you to choose a foreground or background color.

SHOW BRUSHES : This option display the brush sizes and the different shapes for painting the images This palette gives you the option to load the new type of brushes.

SHOW LAYERS : this is very important palette. It shows all the layers and highlight the layer on which layer you are working.

SHOW CHANNELS : The channels palette lets you to create and manage channels and monitor the effects of editing.

SHOW HISTORY : The history palette lets you jump to any recent state of the image created during the current working session.Each time you apply a change to an image, the new state of that image is addes to the palette.

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